A significant marker of the anal canal is the dentate line, separating the upper part lined with transitional zone or rectal glandular mucosa, and the lower part distal third lined by nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium. Salvage Chemoradiation Therapy Salvage chemoradiation therapy for persistent disease has also been evaluated [ 24 ]. Create a survivorship care plan today on OncoLink. Cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma: Adequate coverage of the anal margin, inguinal areas and higher nodal stations, i. The examination will determine whether a biopsy is needed. Subscribe to our Newsletter to recieve:
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What you need to know about anal cancer
In group 2, the disease was controlled in all patients. It consists of two sections: Metastasis to lymph nodes of the inguinal or internal iliac lymph node chains on one side only. Inguinal nodes receive a booster dose if there is evidence of gross nodal disease HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there is a higher incidence in HIV-positive patients but the direct relationship between HIV and anal cancer has been difficult to separate from the prevalence of HPV in this population. In these early cases, the results of surgical excision can be quite good, and the patient can avoid the potential side effects of chemoradiotherapy.